Robert Owen (email@example.com)
Wed, 22 Sep 1999 21:18:27 -0400
Larry Klaes wrote:
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> >Date: Sun, 19 Sep 1999 23:33:01 -0400
> >From: DaleMGray <DaleMGray@compuserve.com>
> >Subject: Frontier Status 9/10/99
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> >Frontier Status 09/10/99
> >Following months of launch delays due to technical issues,
> >nearly all of the world's launch systems are now back on-
> >line with active plans for launches. The Russian Proton and
> >Soyuz rockets were successfully launched while an Ariane 4
> >launched Koreasat-3. Temporary delays have postponed
> >flights of the Atlas and H-2 rockets. The Shuttle,
> >SeaLaunch, and Athena II have announced launch dates.
> >The history of the new high frontier is now at your
> >fingertips. Research topics from past issues of Frontier
> >Status at http://www.cortesi.com/frontier/ .
> >Dale Gray's article "Space as a Frontier -- the Role of
> >Human Motivation" has been published in Space Policy,
> >Volume 15, Number 3, August 1999.
> >Highlights of the week of September 10 include:
> >* Proton rocket returns to service with launch
> >* Ariane 4 launches Koreasat 3
> >* Soyuz rocket launches international satellite
> >* US House cuts NASA budget by $1 billion
> >SHUTTLE - Following weeks of wiring inspections that
> >virtually grounded the Shuttle fleet, NASA announced on
> >September 10 that Discovery's Hubble Servicing mission
> >would be moved in front of Endeavor's Space Radar
> >Topography Mission. Discovery will now be launched on
> >October 28, while Endeavor will not fly before November
> >19. Discovery and Endeavor are in the Orbiter Processing
> >Facility while Atlantis is in the Vehicle Assembly Building
> >(NASA; Florida Today).
> >ISS - The week ending September 10 saw no major
> >problems on the orbiting elements of the International Space
> >Station. Testing of Battery 1 has continued with the battery
> >connected to power for three orbits. Data indicated that the
> >battery charged and discharged in an unpredictable manner.
> >The next major test will be of a pump used to transfer
> >nitrogen through portions of the propellant system. The
> >pump will be used in October in preparation for the
> >November docking of the Service Module. The station
> >continues to orbit at 234 x 244 statute miles with a period of
> >92 miles. The station has completed 4550 orbits since its
> >first launch last November (NASA).
> >MIR - As part of Russia's plans to mothball the abandoned
> >Mir space station, the station's main computer was turned
> >off on September 8. Without a crew or active life support
> >systems, the station now utilizes a fraction of it former
> >power consumption necessary. It is no longer necessary to
> >manage the station's solar panels to provide the station's
> >meager power needs (Reuters).
> >PROTON / YAMAL 101/102 - A Russian Proton rocket was
> >launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 6 at
> >12:36 pm EDT. The Energia DM-2M upper stage placed the
> >satellites in a 197 x 36,311 km x 49.3 degree GTO orbit
> >(Energia reported two burns which would have placed the
> >satellites in 36,000 km orbits). The rocket carried two
> >communications satellites, Yamal 101 and Yamal 102 which
> >will be maneuvered into geostationary orbit. Following
> >successful deployment, Russian mission control
> >"encountered problems" with the RKK Energia built Yamal
> >101 communications satellite. The satellites were built and
> >deployed for AO Gazcom of Moscow in a joint venture with
> >RKK Energia and RAO Gazprom. Each of the 1360 kg
> >satellites carry 12 C-band transponders built by Space
> >Systems/Loral. The satellites utilize Fakel SPD-70 plasma
> >thrusters. They will be used for internal Gazcom
> >communications (Jonathan's Space Report; Florida Today).
> >This was the first launch of a Proton rocket since a weld
> >failed in the second stage of a July 5 Proton launch which
> >resulted in the destruction of the rocket and created an
> >international incident that grounded the Proton system. This
> >successful launch clears the way for the November 12
> >launch of the International Space Station Service Module on
> >a Proton rocket (Florida Today; Reuters citing Interfax
> >News; Space.com).
> >SOYUZ / FOTON - A Soyuz U rocket launched the Foton-
> >12 satellite from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on September 9 at 2
> >pm EDT. The Foton-12 satellite carries experiments from
> >Germany, France, Sweden and other countries. The satellite
> >was designed to return materials from space (Florida
> >ARIANE 4 / KOREASAT-3 - After a one day delay caused
> >by a problem detected on Koreasat-3 during the count-down,
> >an Ariane 4 rocket was successfully launched from Kourou,
> >French Guiana on September 4 at 6:34 pm EDT. The lift-off
> >of Flight 120 was assisted for 1 minute and 45 seconds by
> >two strap-on solid rocket boosters. At 3 minutes and 45
> >seconds of flight, the four Viking 5 rockets shut down and
> >the first stage was jettisoned. At 4 minutes and 40 seconds
> >the payload fairing was jettisoned. At T + 6 minutes the
> >second stage completed its burn and was separated from the
> >third stage. The third stage HM 7B engine burned for 13
> >minutes. Two minutes after third stage burn-out, Koreasat-3
> >separated into a geostationary transfer orbit (199 x 35,950
> >km x 6.996 degree inclination). Three burns of the
> >satellite's liquid apogee motor will raise the communications
> >satellite into geostationary orbit at 116 degrees East
> >longitude. The satellite is owned by Korea Telecom who
> >expects to place the satellite in service transmitting television
> >and telephone signals in October. The satellite was built by
> >Lockheed Martin and features 30 Ku-band and 3 Ka-band
> >transponders. The 2,800 kg (6,173 pound) satellite is three
> >axis stabilized and is expected to have a service life of 15
> >years (Justin Ray, Florida Today; PRNewswire; Jonathan's
> >Space Report).
> >Atlas 2 / EchoStar 5 - The September 10 launch of the
> >EchoStar satellite on an Atlas 2AS rocket was delayed due to
> >adverse weather. A lightning strike hit Complex 35 during a
> >September 5 evening storm. The launch has been
> >rescheduled for September 13. The launch will be the first
> >Atlas rocket launch since the system was grounded by the
> >Delta 3 failure which involved an upper stage similar to that
> >used in the Atlas. The Atlas variant used for the launch will
> >have four strap-on solid boosters with a Centaur upper
> >stage. The rocket will place the spacecraft into a 23,399
> >nautical mile apogee GTO orbit. The spacecraft will use its
> >own onboard system to achieve its orbital slot at 110 degrees
> >West longitude. The EchoStar 5 satellite is a Space Systems/
> >Loral built communications satellite. Based on the FS-1300,
> >the satellite has 32 110 watt Ku-band transponders
> >(Business Wire; MediaNews posting).
> >SEA LAUNCH - Sea Launch has set September 28 as the
> >target date for its first commercial launch. The ocean-based
> >Zenit 3SL launch platform will be positioned on the equator
> >to launch the DirecTV 1-R satellite. The satellite is an HS
> >601 HP model with 30 percent more capacity than its
> >predecessor. It will be placed in the 101 degrees West
> >Longitude orbital slot where it will join DBS-2 and DBS-3
> >satellites (SpaceDaily).
> >X-33 - One of two identical hydrogen tanks produced for the
> >X-33 program will undergo a series of stress and pressure
> >tests this coming week. The testing will occur at the
> >Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The
> >tank, which weighs only 4,600 pounds, is an integral part of
> >the airframe of the X-33 demonstrator and is designed to
> >hold 29,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen at -423 degrees
> >Fahrenheit. The 29 foot high tank will be chilled with
> >cryogenic propellant and structural loads and tested with
> >pressure cycles over the four to six week test period. Test
> >loads will be applied to simulate those encountered during
> >fueling, launch, flight and landing. The tank will be tested
> >with partial and full loads of liquid nitrogen prior to testing
> >with liquid hydrogen. Following the successful completion
> >of tests the tank will be shipped to the Lockheed Martin
> >Skunkworks for integration into the X-33. Assembly of the
> >second tank has been completed and is expected to be
> >shipped to Marshall later this year (SpaceDaily).
> >JAPAN -
> >H-2: On September 10, the National Space Development
> >Agency of Japan postponed the launch of the multifunctional
> >transport satellites (MTSAT),a weather and aircraft
> >monitoring satellite, from the Tanegashima Space Center in
> >Japan. The delay was caused when workers preparing the
> >H-2 rocket for launch discovered a cable had fallen out of
> >place. The cable is the umbilical that links the rocket to the
> >fairing that provides pre-launch power, fuel and other
> >materials to the rocket before launch. The rocket was
> >previously scheduled for launch on September 5, but a
> >defective part pushed the launch back five days (NASDA
> >LE-7A: The National Space Development Agency of Japan
> >completed the fourth in a series of test firings of the LE-7A
> >rocket engine. The test, on September 4, was conducted
> >with the lower nozzle skirt fitted and lasted for 344.2
> >seconds. The next test firing will occur after the upcoming
> >launch of the H-2 (NASDA).
> >ALASKA - The USAF has announced that the planned
> >launch of an atmospheric interceptor technology (AIT) rocket
> >from the Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska will be
> >postponed from September 11 to September 14. The delay
> >was due to unfavorable long-range weather forecasts. The
> >last AIT launch from Kodiak was on November 5, 1998.
> >The rocket launch will be used to evaluate radar performance
> >and utility on the US west coast and to provide an
> >experiment platform for future technology (Air Force Space
> >& Missile Systems Center News Release).
> >LEGISLATION -
> >US House of Representatives: On September 9, the US
> >House of Representatives voted to pass H.R. 2684 which is
> >an appropriations bill that contains a budget that strips
> >NASA of $1 billion in funding. The massive cut was made
> >to help Congress with strict limitations in the spending bill
> >for Veteran Affairs, the Department of Housing and Urban
> >Development and independent agencies such as NASA. If
> >the cut remains after the Senate considers the spending
> >package, then NASA will be forced to cancel a number of
> >exploration, aviation and science programs while scaling
> >down on others. The ISS program, however, would remain
> >untouched. The bill was passed despite public outcry
> >against the budget and intense lobbying efforts by space
> >activist groups such as ProSpace. To date only $400 million
> >of the $1.4 billion cut has been restored. Space advocates
> >hope the money will be injected into NASA's budget in an
> >"11th hour" spending deal between Congress and the White
> >House. The White House recommended a budget cut for
> >NASA in excess of $900,000. (Florida Today; ProSpace
> >PR; SpaceViews).
> >In a separate, but related vote, Rep. Tim Roemer, D-Ind.
> >introduced legislation to eliminate funding for the
> >International Space Station. The annual attempt to kill the
> >station was defeated 298 to 121 (Florida Today).
> >White House: In what could be a major change in US
> >policy, the White House has suggested moving control of
> >the US launch facilities from the military. The change is
> >hoped to move the operation of the facilities closer to that of
> >commercial airports. The change is thought to be inevitable
> >in the face of rising international competition, aging launch
> >range infrastructure and the now dominant commercial use
> >of both Florida and California launch facilities. At the same
> >time, military budgets are no longer capable of absorbing
> >large-scale improvements to the launch ranges. Commercial
> >enterprises will for the first time contribute to operation,
> >maintenance and modernization of the launch ranges (Florida
> >Today; SpaceViews).
> >SATELLITE RADIO FRONTIER -
> >XM Satellite: XM Satellite, which is developing a satellite-
> >based radio system, has set an estimated price for its pending
> >initial public stock offering between $14 to $15 per share.
> >The company expects net proceeds to reach $138.7 million
> >or $159.9 million if an over allotment of 1.5 million shares
> >is exercised. The money will be used to pay for current
> >satellite contracts, terrestrial reporter contracts and for
> >working capital. The company also has a $50 million
> >contact with General Motors to outfit new cars with the new
> >technology. The stock issue represents about 40 percent
> >ownership of the company (Dow Jones Newswire).
> >GPS FRONTIER -
> >GPS Augmentation: The US Federal Aviation
> >Administration (FAA) has approved two space and ground
> >based augmentation systems for the Global Positioning
> >System (GPS). The systems will improve the safety of
> >aircraft navigation and precision landing. The creation of the
> >Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area
> >Augmentation System will lead to the decommissioning of
> >current ground-based augmentation systems (Space News).
> >Orbital Sciences / Hertz: Under an agreement inked earlier
> >this year, Orbital Sciences is now delivering and installing
> >50,000 car navigation units for the Hertz NeverLost rental
> >car service. Deployment of the satellite-based service will be
> >completed by year's end in the US and Canada with
> >installation in Europe in 2000. Cars with the NeverLost
> >system will feature Orbital's 750 NAV system that charts
> >routes by destination name or address -- giving turn-by-turn
> >directions and voice prompts in a choice of seven languages.
> >The system also features an "Instant Locate Button" that
> >displays the vehicle's location if roadside assistance is
> >needed. This is reported to be the largest deployment of
> >vehicle-based GPS technology in history (Space Daily).
> >Orbcomm / Harris Railway Electronics: An agreement
> >between Orbcomm Global and Harris Railway Electronics
> >(GE Harris) was recently announced. Under the agreement,
> >GE Harris would use the Orbcomm satellite communication
> >system as part of its Pinpoint Locomotive Tracking System.
> >The system is capable of determining the position of
> >locomotives to within 100 meters, fuel status and several
> >other important readings. The system allows for better
> >overall efficiency of the railroad fleet and refueling
> >operations. A pilot program resulted in a six percent
> >increase in locomotive utilization and a 10 percent increase in
> >the miles traveled over the road. GE Harris is a joint venture
> >between General Electric and Harris Corporation (Orbcomm
> >REMOTE SENSING FRONTIER -
> >Athena / Ikonos - The Ikonos remote sensing satellite built
> >by Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems for Space
> >Imaging has been delivered to Vandenberg AFB in
> >preparation for its September 24 launch. The satellite is
> >based on the LM900 bus using advanced processing
> >technology to produce images of the Earth's surface -- both
> >panchromatic (1 meter resolution) and multispectral (4 meter
> >resolution). The satellite will be launched on a Lockheed
> >Martin Athena II rocket. Satellite imagery will be available
> >60 - 90 days after launch (SpaceDaily).
> >Landsat 7: The Landsat 7 satellite launched April 15 from
> >Vandenberg AFB has completed its checkout and is now
> >open for business. The remote sensing spacecraft is orbiting
> >the Earth at 438 miles and images the entire globe every 16
> >days. The spacecraft has the capability to collect 450 scenes
> >per day. Images are archived at the EROS Data Center in
> >Sioux Falls, South Dakota and are available on-line 24 hours
> >after collection. Images are available for viewing or
> >purchase at http://landsat7.usgs.gov (NASA).
> >Boeing: Boeing has won a multi-billion dollar contract by
> >the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to build the next
> >generation of imaging spacecraft. The Future Imagery
> >Architecture is expected to meet the needs of the US Military
> >and intelligence community into the next century. The
> >award, announced September 3, runs to 2010 and ends the
> >long-time dominance of Lockheed Martin over the NRO
> >contract (SpaceNews).
> >Celestis: Celestis, the space-burial service company based in
> >the United States, is in negotiation with the Po Fook Hill
> >funeral services firm of Hong Kong. Po Fook provides
> >hotel-like accommodations for ashes of the departed and has
> >indicated that some of their 25,000 customers could be
> >potential customers of the Celestis service. Celestis has
> >placed funeral ashes into orbit as secondary payload on
> >rockets. The orbital service will be offered first in Hong
> >Kong and then on mainland China (SpaceNews).
> >COMING EVENTS - Courtesy J. Ray, and J. Foust
> >September 10 - Japanese H-2, Multi-functional Transport
> >Satellite, Tanegashima Space Center, Japan.
> >September 13 - Lockheed Martin Atlas 2AS (AC-155),
> >EchoStar V, pad 36B, Cape Canaveral Air Station.
> >September 23-26 - Space Frontier Conference 8, Los
> >Angeles, CA.
> >September 23 - USAF Delta 2, NAVSTAR (GPS 2R-3),
> >pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station.
> >September 24 - Ariane 44LP, Telstar 7, Kourou, French
> >Guiana (previously slated to fly on Atlas 3).
> >September 24 - Athena 2, Ikonos (previously Ikonos-2),
> >SLC-6, Vandenberg AFB.
> >September (late) - Starsem Soyuz, Globalstar (4 satellites),
> >Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakstan.
> >September 26 - ILS Proton (Blok DM), LMI-1, Baikonur
> >Cosmodrome, Kazakstan.
> >September 28 - Sea Launch Zenit 3SL, DirecTV 1-R,
> >equatorial Pacific Ocean.
> >Delayed - September 30 - Atlas 2A (AC-136), Navy UHF-
> >10, pad 36B, Cape Canaveral Air Station.
> >October 3 - Titan 2 (G-8), Defense Meteorological Satellite
> >Program weather satellite, SLC-4W, Vandenberg AFB.
> >October 13 - Pegasus XL, ORBCOMM (8 satellites),
> >Kwajalein Missile Range.
> >October 15 - Orbital Sciences Minotaur, JAWSAT,
> >FalsonSat, ASU Sat 1, Vandenberg AFB.
> >October 28 - Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-103, Hubble
> >Servicing Mission, pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center.
> >November 12 - Proton, ISS flight 1R, Zvezda Service
> >Module, Baikonur, Kazakstan.
> >November 13 - Space Enterprise Symposium, Seattle.
> >CENSUS - There are currently no humans in orbital space.
> >The first element of the International Space Station has been
> >in orbit for 295 days. The occupation of the International
> >Space Station is expected to begin in March of 2000.
> >SOURCES -
> >Florida Today:
> >SpaceCast / SpaceDaily:
> >JonathanŐs Space Report:
> >Houston Chronicle Space News
> >Space news:
> >Space Frontier Foundation
> >Archimedes Institute (space
> >Space Statistics:
> >Space Population:
> >Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica:
> >Robert Kennedy's Ultimax Group (Russian space
> >encyclopedia) (Commercial Site) http://www.ultimax.com
> >Satellite news:
> >Dale M. Gray is the president of Frontier Historical
> >Consultants. Frontier Status reports are a free weekly
> >annotated index chronicling progress of the emerging space
> >frontier. Send subscription requests (subscribe or
> >unsubscribe) < mailto: Frontieremail@example.com
> >>. Previous postings are archived at <
> >http://www.cortesi.com/frontier/ >.
> >Editorial assistance by Rick Bier < http://www.2-tier.com >.
> >Search engine and timeline computation courtesy of Simone
> >E-mail server provided by Jim Sealy, Jr.
> >Technical Support by the Artemis Society.
> >(c) Copyright Dale M. Gray September 10, 1999.
Robert M. Owen
The Orion Institute
57 W. Morgan Street
Brevard, NC 28712-3659 USA
This archive was generated by hypermail 2.0b3 on Sun Oct 10 1999 - 15:46:36 PDT