SETI bioastro: CCNet LETTERS TO THE MODERATOR, 3 May 2000

From: Larry Klaes (lklaes@bbn.com)
Date: Wed May 03 2000 - 12:29:58 PDT


From: Benny J Peiser <b.j.peiser@livjm.ac.uk>
Sender: HUMBPEIS@livjm.ac.uk
To: cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Subject: LETTERS TO THE MODERATOR, 3 May 2000
Date: Wed, 3 May 2000 11:19:00 -0400 (EDT)
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LETTERS TO THE MODERATOR, 3 May 2000
-------------------------------------

     "Though these high-energy events may somehow be coupled to solar
     climate, including dust and gases from comets, they do not seem to
     be directly related to impact with a massive body. Descriptions
     like Daniel found are real teasers; not only do they sound like a
     valid impact description but it is conceivable that this type of
     phenomenon could actually occur in the wake of remote atmospheric
     impacts. In other words we need to remember that we live on the
     bottom of an ocean of air and its temperature, electrical
     potential, aerosol content, etc, influences the various stresses
     on the Earth's crust. Again--I think that we have a great deal to
     yet learn about this dynamic planet we live on as well as the
     variable environment it zooms through."
          -- Bob Kobres

(1) TORIONO SCALE & FOLK TAXONOMY: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL
    PERSPECTIVE
    Joel Gunn <jdgunn@mindspring.com>

(2) MAGNETITES IN MARTIAN METEORITE ALH84001
    Everett K. Gibson <everett.k.gibson1@jsc.nasa.gov>

(3) SEARCHING FOR HISTORICAL IMPACTS
    Mark Kidger <mrk@ll.iac.es>

(4) BRIGHT LIGHTS, DRAGONS & DISASTERS
    Mike Baillie <m.baillie@qub.ac.uk>

(5) THE 1822 EVENT & THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFYING IMPACT REPORTS
    Bob Kobres < bkobres@uga.edu>

===========
(1) TORIONO SCALE & FOLK TAXONOMY: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL
    PERSPECTIVE

>From Joel Gunn <jdgunn@mindspring.com>

Jonathan,

I am an anthropologist and one of the things that anthropologists talk
about that might reinforce your decision to make an impact hazard scale
of 5 items (rather than 10) is what is referred to as "folk
taxonomies." Folk taxonomies are classifications of common phenomena
such a color, kinship, family history, etc. They generally consist of
around 7 categories as does color in our culture.

It seems that people as groups can learn and share a taxonomy of this
size with facility. Any system of classification that requires more
categories will become a matter of special training such as the
alphabet (26 characters), or medicinal plants, and persons mastering
these classifications will be considered specialists in the culture.
This longstanding anthropological observation has been reinforced
recently by brain studies that find that the human brain operates on
what appear to be in effect seven short term memory locations. Thus,
most people can hold about seven or so categories in mind at the same
time and choose between them.

Joel Gunn

=========
(2) MAGNETITES IN MARTIAN METEORITE ALH84001

>From Everett K. Gibson <everett.k.gibson1@jsc.nasa.gov>

Sorry for the delay in responding but I have been in the UK for the
past three weeks. Here is a brief response to the inquiry:
        
Mars is believed to have had a weak magnetic field during the first
0.5-0.7Ga of its history (Data published in SCIENCE, 1999. Data
obtained from magnetometer onboard orbiting spacecraft currently in
orbit about Mars). The magnetites which we see in ALH84001 carbonate
rims are those which have the unusual biogenic properties. The
carbonates containing the magnetites have been age dated via Rb-Sr and
Pb-U techniques to be 3.9 Ga age. The magnetites which we believe have
biogenic properties (i.e. those formed from magnetotactic bacteria)
were formed during a period of time when the planet had a weak magnetic
field.

Everett K. Gibson

================
(3) SEARCHING FOR HISTORICAL IMPACTS

>From Mark Kidger <mrk@ll.iac.es>

Dear Beny:

I would like to pick up E.P. Grodine's caution in CCNet-Letters.
Reading CCNet over the last few months one is struck by just how many
possible NEO impact events can be found in historical records - even in
recent centuries. This is slightly worrying as the much lower human
population density a few centuries ago and even more so further back,
would mean that most impact events would be missed because they would
have occurred in uninhabited regions, or regions where there is little
or no written history.

It might be a salutory excercise to calculate just how many important
events would be predicted over, for example, the last three millenia
and, from the variation in population distribution and density, just
how many of these events might have been expected to be observed and
recorded.

My intuitive feeling is that there are more candidate events than one
might reasonably expect, in which case it will be necessary to look for
additional criteria to distinguish candidate impacts from other events.

Mark Kidger

==================
(4) BRIGHT LIGHTS, DRAGONS & DISASTERS

>From Mike Baillie <m.baillie@qub.ac.uk>

Hi Benny,

Ed Grondine makes some useful points in his NOT ALL BRIGHT LIGHTS IN
THE SKY WERE IMPACTORS piece, not least about religious supression.
However, I think yet again it is worth mentioning that we have a global
environmental event to explain at around AD 540. An event pointed out
by tree-ring records not by human history. Bright lights may be as good
a clue as to cause as anything else.

I would like to take issue with Ed on the subject of dragons. Ed wrote:
"Yet another trap for those working with ancient records is working out
of context, which can lead to errors in working with inadequate
translations by earlier writers. For example, if memory serves me
correctly, 'draigne', sometimes translated into Welsh as 'dreic',
'dragon', is an early Anglo-Saxon title. Particular caution should be
made with mentions of dragons in the work of Geoffrey of Monmouth."

Now I am not a linguist or a wordsmith or a mythologist, so I have to
assume that people who trade in those disciplines have some inkling of
what they are talking about. Every translation of Beowulf talks about
a fire-dragon, right up to Seamus Heaney 1999. Beowulf is pretty
closely confined to the early sixth century by writers who from their
credentials should have known what they were talking about.
  
Merlin, the universally accepted side-kick of Arthur, which just about
everyone would place in the sixth century is associated with dragons by
writers like Nikolai Tolstoy. Anyone who cares to dig out his 'The
Quest for Merlin' (Hamish Hamilton 1985) and leaf through to page 113
will get a hint of the background to dragons largely independent of
Geoffrey of Monmouth.

Basically, in order to answer the question whether there was a
bombardment event around AD 540, we need some hard scientific evidence
from an encapsulated deposit be it an ice core or a tree ring record or
a peat deposit or a varve series. The dragons and the bright lights in
the sky give us a pretty good clue what the answer will be; they cannot
in themselves supply that answer.

Mike Baillie

===============
(5) THE 1822 EVENT & THE PROBLEM OF IDENTIFYING IMPACT REPORTS

>From Bob Kobres < bkobres@uga.edu>

Regarding the 1822 event reported by Daniel Fischer (CCNet 04/26/00).
The description is similar to reports of a luminous body and heated air
observed in 1737:

From:
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc110499.html#1737

"6) This meteor was seen at Venice at the same time; and, over Kilkenny
in Ireland, it appeared like a great Ball of Fire; which burst with an
Explosion that shook [a] great Part of the Island, and set the whole
Hemisphere on Fire; which burnt most furiously, till all the
sulphureous Matter was spent."

Point five is also intriguing:

"5) The whole Time was attended with an extraordinary Heat of the Air
for the Season [early December]; for I was obliged to strip to the
Shirt, though abroad in the Air all the time."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Though these high-energy events may somehow be coupled to solar
climate, including dust and gases from comets, they do not seem to be
directly related to impact with a massive body. Descriptions like
Daniel found are real teasers; not only do they sound like a valid
impact description but it is conceivable that this type of phenomenon
could actually occur in the wake of remote atmospheric impacts. In
other words we need to remember that we live on the bottom of an ocean
of air and its temperature, electrical potential, aerosol content, etc,
influences the various stresses on the Earth's crust. Again--I think
that we have a great deal to yet learn about this dynamic planet we
live on as well as the variable environment it zooms through.

Later.
bobk

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Heresy (;^) from:
http://www.geocities.com/olkhov/gr1997.htm

This www-page is devoted to the phenomenon, which can be called
"geophysical meteors" (or "geometeors"). They are meteor-like luminous
events, but of none-meteoroidal (i.e. terrestrial) origin. Just two
centures ago every meteor was thought to be of terrestrial origin, as
"stones can not fall from the sky", and those few, who said about
stones fallen from the sky considered as heretics.

Then it was discovered that stones can fall, and they are of
extraterrestrial origin (meteorites). The previous dogma was quickly
forgotten, so the pendulum has swung into the extreme opposite
position, and a new dogma was born declaring that every
fireball/meteor/bolide in the sky is of meteoroidal origin, and is
caused by a chunk of extraterrestrial rock/ice, etc., or, at least,
manmade space debris.

Just recently, the pendulum began to move to the equilibrium position.
An article on the item appeared even in astronomical journal
METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE (you can read the scanned article).

It seems that the Nature used to keep the Truth in between!

The main problem with geophysical meteors (geometeors) is that, unlike
the meteoroidal meteors (astrometeors), their physical mechanism is not
known. We can just suppose that probably the origin has some
resemblance with a ball-lightning. But the latter one is a problem for
modern scientists too! Many scientists try to avoid the problem, just
ignoring it, while groups (not very large) of enthusiasts work hard
over it. Wish them a success!

Let's return to geometeors. Several examples of them can be found in my
tectonic Tunguska article. New ones are given below. But I will begin
with discussion of their possible physical mechanisms.

Continued:
http://www.geocities.com/olkhov/gr1997.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

Purported images of 'earthquake lights' along fault in Turkey:
http://tuvpo.htmlplanet.com/alpreports/alpeng.html

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Observations collected by Charles Hoy Fort:

From: http://www.resologist.net/lands201.htm

Feb. 2, 1816 -- a quake at Lisbon. There was something in the sky.
Extraordinary sounds were heard, but were attributed to "flocks of
birds." But six hours later something was seen in the sky: it is said
to have been a meteor (Rept. B.A.,, 1854-106).(12) [94/95]

Since the year 1788, many earthquakes, or concussions that were listed
as earthquakes, had occurred at the town of Comrie, Perthshire,
Scotland. Seventeen instances were recorded on the year 1795. Almost
all records of the phenomena of Comrie start with the year 1788, but,
in Macara's Guide to Creiff, it is said that the disturbances were
recorded as far back as the year 1597.(13) They were slight shocks, and
until the occurrence upon August 13, 1816, conventional explanations,
excluding all thought of relations with anything in the sky, seemed
adequate enough. But, in an account in the London Times, Aug. 21, 1816,
it is said that, at the time of the quake of Aug. 13, a luminous
object, or a "small meteor," had been seen at Dunkeld, near Comrie;
and, according to David Milne, (Edin. New Phil. Jour., 31-110), a
resident of Comrie had reported "a large luminous body, bent like a
crescent, which stretched itself over the heavens."(14)

[Lots of quartzite in these parts. bobk]
http://www.strathearn.com/ge/geology.htm
http://www.strathearn.com/pl/earthquake.htm
http://dublin.local.ie/content/8852.shtml

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There was another quake in Scotland (Inverness) June 30, 1817. It is
said that hot rain fell from the sky (Rept. B.A., 1854-112).(15)

Jan. 6, 1818 -- an unknown body that crossed the sun, according to
Loft, of Ipswich; observed about three hours and a half (Quar. Jour.
Roy. Inst., 5-117).(16)

Five unknown bodies that were seen, upon June 26, 1819, crossing the
sun, according to Gruithuisen (An. Sci. Disc., 1860-411).(17) Also,
upon this day, Pastorff saw something that he thought was a comet,
which was then somewhere near the sun, but which, according to Olbers,
could not have been the comet, (Webb, Celestial Objects, p.40).(18)

Upon Aug. 28, 1819, there was a violent quake at Irkutsk, Siberia.
There had been two shocks upon Aug. 22, 1813 (Rept. B.A.,
1854-101).(19) Upon April 6, 1805, or March 25, according to the
Russian calendar, two stones had fallen from the sky at Irkutsk (Rept.
B.A., 1860-12).(20) One of these stones is now in the South Kensington
Museum, London.(21) Another violent shock at Irkutsk, April 7, 1820
(Rept. B.A., 1854-128).(22)

Unknown bodies in the sky, in the year 1820, Feb. 12 and April 27
(Comptes Rendus, 83-314).(23)
Things that marched in the sky -- see Arago's uvres, 11-576, or Annales
de Chimie, 30-417 -- objects that were seen by many [95/96] persons, in
the streets of Embrun, during the eclipse of Sept. 7, 1820, moving in
straight lines, turning and retracing in the same straight lines, all
of them separated by uniform spaces.(24)

Early in the year 1821 -- and a light shone out on the moon -- a bright
point of light in the lunar crater Aristarchus, which was in the dark
at the time. It was seen, upon the 4th and the 7th of February, by
Capt. Kater (An. Reg., 1821-689); and upon the 5th by Dr. Olbers (Mems.
R.A.S., 1-159).(25) It was a light like a star, and was seen again, May
4th and 6th, by the Rev. M. Ward and by Francis Bailey (Mems. R.A.S.,
1-159).(26) At Cape Town, nights of Nov. 28th and 29th, 1821, again a
star-like light was seen upon the moon (Phil. Trans., 112-237).(27)

Quar. Jour. Roy. Inst., 20-417:(28)
That, early in the morning of March 20, 1822, detonations were heard at
Melida, an island in the Adriatic. All day, at intervals, the sounds
were heard. They were like cannonading, and it was supposed that they
came from a vessel, or from Turkish artillery, practicing in some
frontier village. For thirty days the detonation continued, sometimes
thirty or forty, sometimes several hundred, a day.

~~~~~~~~~~
[Likely related to the attack on Chios. bobk]
http://www.calong.dircon.co.uk/personal.chiosmass2.html
~~~~~~~~~~

Upon April 13, 1822, it seems, according to description, that clearly
enough was there an explosion in the sky of Comrie, and a concussion of
the ground -- "two loud reports, one apparently over our heads, and the
other, which followed immediately, under our feet" (Edin. New Phil.
Jour., 31-119).(29)

July 15, 1822 -- a fall of perhaps unknown seeds from perhaps an
unknown world -- a great quantity of little round seeds that fell from
the sky at Marienwerder, Germany. They were unknown to the inhabitants,
who tried to cook them, but found that boiling seemed to have no effect
upon them. Wherever they came from, they were brought down by a storm,
and two days later, more of them fell, in a storm, in Silesia. It is
said that these corpuscles were identified by some scientists as seeds
of Galium spurium, but that other scientists disagreed. Later more of
them fell at Posen, Mecklenburg. See Bull. des Sci. (math., astro.,
etc.) 1-1-298.(30)

Aug. 19, 1822 -- a tremendous detonation at Melida -- others continuing
several days.(31) [96/97]

Oct. 23, 1822 -- two unknown dark bodies crossing the sun; observed by
Pastorff (An. Sci. Disc., 1860-411).(32)

[notes]:
12. Robert Mallet. "Third report on the facts of earthquake phenomena."
Annual Report of the British Association for the Advancement of
Science, 1854, 1-326, at 106. The "meteor" was observed immediately
after the first shock of the earthquake, (not "six hours later," when
another series of less intense shocks were felt).

13. Duncan Macara. Macara's Guide to Creiff, Comrie, St. Filans, and
Upper Strathearn.... Edinburgh: D. Macara, (189-?).

14. "Earthquake in Scotland." London Times, August 21, 1816, p.3 c.2-3.
Dunkeld is about 35 kilometers from Comrie. David Milne. "Notices of
earthquake shocks felt in Great Britain, and especially in Scotland,
with inferences suggested by these notices as to the causes of such
shocks." Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 31 (1841): 92-122,
259-309, at 117.

15. Robert Mallet. "Third report on the facts of earthquake phenomena."
Annual Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
1854, 1-326, at 112. "Meteorological retrospect for the last half of the
year 1817." Philosophical Magazine, 51 (January to June, 1818): 189-99,
at 193.

16. "Supposed transit of a comet." Quarterly Journal of the Royal
Institute of Great Britain, 5 (1818): 117-8. The object was observed by
Lofft for more than three-and-a-half hours. For Lofft's original
report: Capel Lofft. "On the appearance of an opaque body traversing
the sun's disc." Monthly Magazine, o.s., 45 (March 1, 1818): 102-3.

17. "New planets." Annual of Scientific Discovery, 1860, 409-11, at
411. Three, not five, "solar spots" were observed "...viz., one near
the middle of the sun, and two small one without nebulosity near the
western limb."

18. Thomas William Webb. Celestial Objects. 4th ed. 1881. 6th ed.,
1917. 4th ed., 40.

19. Robert Mallet. "Third report on the facts of earthquake phenomena."
Annual Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
1854, 1-326, at 101, 125.

20. R.P. Greg. "A catalogue of meteorites and fireballs, from A.D. 2 to
A.D. 1860." Annual Report of the British Association for the
Advancement of Science, 1860, 48-120, at 62.

21. Lazarus A. Fletcher. Introduction to the Study of Meteorites....
1904. 10th ed., London: British Museum Trustees, 1908, 98, (notes).

22. Robert Mallet. "Third report on the facts of earthquake phenomena."
Annual Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science,
1854, 1-326, at 128. The date of the shock was May 7, 1820, (not April
7).

23. Le Verrier. "Examen des observations qu'on a présentées, à diverses
époques, comme pouvant appartenir aux passages d'une planète
intra-mercurielle devant le disque du Soleil." Comptes Rendus, 83
(1876): 583-9, 621-4, 647-50, 719-23; at 589, 621.

24. [Dominique] FranÇois [Jean] Arago. Oeuvres Complètes de FranÇois
Arago. Paris, 1857, v.11, 575-8. "M. Dick imagine que le phénomène
observé par M. Hansteen...." Annales de Chimie, s.2, 30 (1825): 416-21.

25. "Volcanic appearance in the Moon." Annual Register, 1821, 687-8.
The light was also seen by Kater on February 6. For the original
report: Henry Kater. "Notice respecting a volcanic appearance in the
Moon." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 111
(1821): 130-2, pl. X. William Olbers. "On the comet discovered in the
constellation Pegasus in 1821: and on the luminous appearance on the
dark side of the Moon on February 5, 1821." Memoirs of the Royal
Astronomical Society, 1, 156-8.

26. The observation was made on May 5, 1821, when the clouded skies
prevented Ward from viewing it. Michael Ward. "On a luminous appearance
seen on the dark part of the Moon in May 1821." Memoirs of the Royal
Astronomical Society, 1, 159-61.

27. Fearon Fallows. "Communication of a curious appearance lately
observed upon the Moon." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society of London, 112 (1822): 237-8.

28. "Remarkable phenomena observed in the Island of Melida, Province of
Ragusa." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Institute of Great Britain, 20,
417-8. Fort wrote "thirty days" as the duration, though the article he
cites states "eight or nine months." "Détonations extraordinaire dans
l'île Méléda." Annales de Chimie et de Physique, s. 2, 30 (1825):
432-5.

29. David Milne. "Notices of earthquake shocks felt in Great Britain,
and especially in Scotland, with inferences suggested by these notices
as to the causes of such shocks." Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal,
31 (1841): 92-122, 259-309, at 119.

30. The seeds fell at Posen and the country around Mecklenburg). Kreis.
"Effet remarquable d'un orage." Bulletin (Universal) des Sciences,
Mathematiques, Astronomique, Physiques et Chimiques, 1 (1824): 298-9.

31. "Détonations extraordinaire dans l'île Méléda." Annales de Chimie
et de Physique, s. 2, 30 (1825): 432-5. The date of the phenomenon was
August 10, 1822, (not August 19).

32. "New planets." Annual of Scientific Discovery, 1860, 409-11, at
411.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

From:
http://www.resologist.net/damn14.htm

In 1783 and 1787, Herschel reported more lights on or near the moon,
which he supposed were volcanic.(43)

The word of a Herschel has had no more weight, in divergences from the
orthodox, than has had the word of a Lescarbault. These observations
are of the disregarded.

Bright spots seen in the moon, Nov., 1821 (Proc. London Roy. Soc.,
2-167).(44)

For four other instances, see Loomis ("Treatise on Astronomy," p.
174).(45)

A moving light is reported in Phil. Trans., 84-429.(46) To the writer,
[198/199] it looked like a star passing over the moon -- "which, on the
next moment's consideration I knew to be impossible." "It was a fixed,
steady light upon the dark part of the moon." I suppose "fixed" applies
to luster.

In the Report of the Brit. Assoc., 1847-18, there is an observation by
Rankin, upon luminous points seen on the shaded part of the moon,
during an eclipse.(47) They seemed to this observer like reflections of
stars. That's not very reasonable: however, we have, in the Annual
Register, 1821-687, a light not referable to star -- because it moved
with the moon: was seen three nights in succession; reported by Capt.
Kater.(48) See Quar. Jour. Roy. Inst., 12-133.(49)

Phil. Trans., 112-237:(50)
Report from the Cape Town Observatory: a whitish spot on the dark part
of the moon's limb. Three smaller lights were seen.

[notes]:
43. Wilhelm Herschel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
of London, 77, 229. On October 22, 1790, Herschel reported seeing as
many as one-hundred-and-fifty "bright, red, luminous points" upon the
eclipsed moon; but, he was more cautious in 1791, and saying "we know
too little of the surface of the moon," he would not "venture to
surmise" their cause. Wilhelm Herschel. "Miscellaneous observations."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 82 (1792):
23-27, at 27.

44. Fearon Fallows. "Communication of a curious appearance lately
observed upon the Moon." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 2,
167. The observations were made upon November 28 and 29, 1821.

45. Elias Loomis. A Treatise on Astronomy. New York: Harper & Brothers,
1881, 174-5. These other observations were all made during solar
eclipses: June 24, 1778, by Ulloa; May 15, 1836, by Bessel; July 8,
1842, by Valz, at Marseilles; and, July 18, 1860, by two Frenchmen,
(Bout and Mannheim), in Algeria. T.W. Webb. Celestial Objects for
Common Telescopes. 4th ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1881, 76-7.
Webb mentions that Gruithuisen believed he had seen the "specks of
light," also reported by Schröter; and, "with great distinctness," Webb
says they were observed by Grover and Williams.

46. "An account of an appearance of light, like a star, seen in the
dark part of the Moon, on Friday the 7th of March, 1794, by William
Wilkins, Esq. at Norwich." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society of London, 84, 429-40, at 430. The correct quote is from the
article's title, thus: "...in the dark part...." The observation was
made upon March 7, 1794, for about five minutes before the light
vanished.

47. T. Rankin. "On a singular appearance of the shaded part of the
Moon...." Annual Report of the British Association for the Advancement
of Science, 1847, trans., 18.

48. "Volcanic appearance in the Moon." Annual Register, 1821, 687-8.

49. Henry Kater. "Notice respecting a volcanic appearance in the Moon,
in a letter addressed to the President." Quarterly Journal of the Royal
Institute of Great Britain, 12, 133. For the original report and
illustration: Henry Kater. "Notice respecting a volcanic appearance in
the Moon, in a letter addressed to the President." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 111 (1821): 130-3, pl. X.

50. Fearon Fallows. "Communication of a curious appearance lately
observed upon the Moon." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society of London, 112 (1822): 237-8.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Comet Encke was showing its tail a bit more around this time period.
From: http://comets.amsmeteors.org/comets/pcomets/002p.html

During 1821 Johann Franz Encke published his prediction that Pons comet
of 1819 would return to perihelion 1822 May 23.63, which was just one
day too early. Further investigations of this comet's orbit in 1823 led
Encke to the conclusion that the comet had also been detected in 1786,
1795, and 1805.

Magnitude estimates were not made until the late 19th century, but
astronomers have attempted to determine the maximum brightness of this
comet at each of its returns. It seems apparent that the comet has
faded since 1786. The greatest recorded brightness was about 3.5 in
1829, while a value of 4.0 was indicated in 1805. The comet has not
been observed as brighter than magnitude 5.0 during the 20th century. A
magnitude of 5.0 was last registered in 1964.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~`

A few links regarding the geology of the general area:
http://www.zadok.org/1927/willis.html
http://laurasia.ems.psu.edu/info/explore/TurkQuake.html
http://almashriq.hiof.no/ddc/projects/geology/geology-of-lebanon/
http://southport.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/finrpt/Dabbagh/dabbagh.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Bob Kobres
bkobres@uga.edu
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk
706-542-0583
Main Library
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602

-----------------
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The fully indexed archive of the CCNet, from February 1997 on,
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